MLA Citations

Visit the following website for instructions on how to properly cite and list sources you are using when conducting research on Social Studies topics.  The MLA (Modern Language Association) style is required for Social Studies classes. The Purdue University website offers a wealth of explanation as well as examples on how to properly cite a variety of sources, including articles from databases, newspapers, magazines, TV news reports, online sources, videos/films, even tweets!

APA Citations

It is important to include a list of sources (examples: books, websites, articles) used for research to support your science fair project.  
  • Create a reference page on a clean sheet of paper at the end of the research paper.  Write "References" at the top of this paper.
  • When creating the reference page, make sure to pay attention to capitalization, punctuation, and italicizing.  
  • Alphabetize the sources listed on the reference page by the authors' last names.
  • Visit the APA citation page from Science Buddies.  

Citing: Books
Author last name, Initial of author’s first name. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. City of book publication location, 
        State abbreviation of book publication location: Publisher.

Note: If the citation continues onto a second line, make sure to indent.

Highmore, B. (2001). Everyday life and cultural theory. New York, NY: Scholastic Publishing.

Sanchez, F., Smith, E., Alvarez, B., & Lopez, L. (2000). Hurricanes: History's most destructive storms. Boston, MA: Oxford University Press.

Citing: One Author
  • Start with the author's last name, followed by a comma and the initial of the author's first name.  Then write the date of the source's publication in parentheses.
Cisneros, S. (1991). The house on Mango Street. Chicago, IL: Vintage Books.

Citing: More than One Author
  • When a book has more than one author, write the authors' last names followed by the initial of the authors' first names.  
  • Use an ampersand (&) between authors' names instead of writing "and."
Walker, J., & Taylor, T. (2005). Tropical storms. New York, NY: Penguin Publishers.

Sanchez, F., Smith, E., Alvarez, B., & Lopez, L. (2000). Hurricanes. Boston, MA: Scholastic Publishing.

Citing: Organization as the Author
  • When the author is an organization, start with the name of the organization.
Environmental Protection Agency. (1998). Toxic air pollution. San Francisco, CA: HarperCollins Publishers.

Additional Citation Resources:
Visit the APA citation page from Science Buddies.